Researchers investigating the relationship between age and life satisfaction have produced conflicting answers, via disputes over whether to include individual-level control variables in regression models. Most scholars believe there is a ‘U-shaped’ relationship, with life satisfaction falling towards middle age and subsequently rising. This position emerges mainly in research that uses control variables (for example, for income and marital status). This approach is incorrect. Regression models should control only ‘confounding’ variables; that is, variables that are causally prior to the dependent variable and the core independent variable of interest. Other individual-level variables cannot determine one’s age; they are not confounders and should not be controlled. This article applies these points to data from the World Values Survey. A key finding is that there is at best a negligible post-middle-age rise in life satisfaction – and the important implication is that there cannot then be a U-shaped relationship between age and life satisfaction.
Read more: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0038038520926871
Call for Papers for the International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies Sponsored Session at the Community Indicators Consortium 2020 Virtual Impact Summit
August 3-7, 2020
The Community Indicators Consortium 2020 Virtual Impact Summit will showcase how data and community indicators are or can be used to foster opportunity, catalyze change and advance community resilience.
ISQOLS is seeking to sponsor a session with a series of presentations on measures of Quality-of-Life from an academic perspective. Professional practitioners within the Community Indicators Consortium are interested in hearing about new or promising QOL indicators supported by quality research, where the correlations between the indicator(s) and overall quality-of-life, including sustainability and wellbeing, are strong, as well as insight on how apply these indices in a real-world setting.
ISQOLS will sponsor the conference fees for accepted presenters.
We are seeking a session chair as well as 4 presenters for this session.
Please send a 350-word abstract to email@example.com by July 3rd.
The Importance Life and Job Satisfaction
By Jonathan H. Westover, Ph.D.
Utah Valley University
Human Capital Innovations, LLC
The level of satisfaction that workers feel and obtain through work is directly correlated to their overall sense of life satisfaction, which leads to a variety of positive individual, organizational, and societal outcomes (Böckerman & Ilmakunnas, 2012; Petty et al. 1984).
As Buetell (2006) argues, “Life satisfaction is an overall assessment of feelings and attitudes about one’s life at a particular point in time, ranging from negative to positive.” Happiness or life satisfaction is the degree to which an individual determines the overall quality of his/her life (Life Satisfaction). As Diener et al. note (1985), “three separate components of subjective well-being have been identified: positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction” (71). Pavot and Diener (1990) also state, “Life satisfaction refers to a judgmental process. In which individuals assess the quality of their lives on the basis of their own unique set of criteria” (164). Additionally, the positive or negative view that we have on our own lives has substantial impact on each of us (Yamasaki et al. 2011).
For years, economists and social scientists have used gross domestic product (GDP) as the standard metric for measuring the success and health of a country (e.g., Snyder 1936; How Do We Measure ‘Standard of Living’ 2015). However, GDP falls quite short in measuring the social wellness of a country because it fails to take into account subjective well-being in response to economic activity in a country (Easterlin 1974). Measures of subjective well-being can only be gathered through surveying/interviewing individuals about their own unique feelings towards their life and circumstance.
Figure 1: Global Comparison Life Satisfaction, 2014
Source: World Values Survey
Figure 2: Global Comparison Job Satisfaction, 2015
Source: International Social Survey Programme
Based on extensive research into work and life satisfaction, it is clear that various intrinsic and extrinsic motivators in the workplace environment have a significant impact on improving the overall job satisfaction of workers, as well as the life satisfaction of citizens in a country (Westover, 2016). Extrinsic and Intrinsic factors of motivation can play a key role in predicting the overall level of job satisfaction in a country because they help determine why and how an employee is driven and finds meaning and value in work. This is consistent with the findings of many studies that show there is a direct correlation between employee motivation and satisfaction, which in turn increases employee performance (e.g., Tietjen et al. 1998; Locke et al. 1990; Roos et al. 2008).
While we see different countries involved in the World Values Survey and the International Social Survey Programme, from the figures above, we can see that the countries with the highest job satisfaction also have the highest life satisfaction. In regards to job satisfaction, additional research has shown that in countries where employees most frequently mention extrinsic factors as important aspects of a job have a lower job and life satisfaction, whereas in countries where most workers frequently mention intrinsic factors as important aspects of a job have a higher job and life satisfaction (Westover, 2016).
The brief results presented and referenced herein can be used by businesses and corporations in order to help increase employee motivation, job satisfaction, and employee life satisfaction by identifying and making changes to the different extrinsic and intrinsic motivators within their workplace environment. This insight can also be usitlized by government employees and policy makers in order to determine the best and worst causes and effects of certain public policy implementations on life satisfaction and worker satisfaction.
Böckerman, P., & Ilmakunnas, P. (2012). “The Job Satisfaction-Productivity Nexus: A Study Using Matched Survey and Register Data.” ILR Review 65 (2): 244–62. doi:10.1177/001979391206500203.
BostonFed. How Do We Measure ‘Standard of Living.’ Accessed May 17, 2016. https://www.bostonfed.org/-/media/Documents/ledger/ledger2003/measure.pdf
Buetell, N. (2006). Life satisfaction, a Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia entry. Retrieved May 10, 2007, from the Sloan Work and Family Research Network website: http://wfnetwork.bc.edu.
Diener, E. D., Robert A. Emmons, Randy J. Larsen, & Sharon Griffin. (1985). “The Satisfaction with Life Scale.” Journal of Personality Assessment 49 (1): 71–5.
Easterlin, R. A. (1974). “Does Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? Some Empirical Evidence.” In Nations and Households in Economic Growth, edited by P. A. David and M. W. Reder, 89–125. Philadelphia: Elsevier.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P.. (1990). “Work Motivation and Satisfaction: Light at the End of the Tunnel.” Psychological Science 1 (4): 240–6. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.1990.tb00207.x.
Snyder, C. (1936). “The Capital Supply and National Well-Being.” The American Economic Review 26 (2): 195–224.
Pavot, W., Diener, E. D., & Fujita, F. (1990). Extraversion and happiness. Personality and individual differences, 11(12), 1299-1306.
Petty, M. M., Mcgee, G. W., & Cavender, J. W. (1984). “A Meta-Analysis of the Relationships between Individual Job Satisfaction and Individual Performance.” The Academy of Management Review 9 (4): 712–21. doi:10.2307/258493.
Roos, W., & Eeden, R. V.. (2008). “The Relationship between Employee Motivation, Job Satisfaction and Corporate Culture.” SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 34 (1): 54–63. doi:10.4102/sajip.v34i1.420.
Tietjen, M. A., & Myers, R. M. (1998). “Motivation and Job Satisfaction.” Management Decision 36 (4): 226–31. doi:10.1108/ 00251749810211027.
Westover, J. .H. (2016). “The International Political Economy of Worker Satisfaction: A Cross-national HLM Analysis.” Evidence-based HRM: A Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship 4 (3): 116-143.
Yamasaki, K., Sasaki, M., Uchida, K., & Katsuma, L. (2011). “Effects of Positive and Negative Affect and Emotional Suppression on Short-term Life Satisfaction.” Psychology, Health & Medicine 16 (3): 313–22. doi:10.1080/13548506.2011.554564.
*This is adapted from an article originally published in The Global Studies Journal. For full article see: Eskildsen, B., Light, J. Westover, J.H., & Carlisle, K. (2017). "Shifting Comparative Job and Life Satisfaction across the Globe, 1995–2014." The Global Studies Journal 10 (2): 21-39. doi:10.18848/1835-4432/CGP/v10i02/21-39.
Author Bio: Jonathan H. Westover (Ph.D., University of Utah, USA) is an Associate Professor of Organizational Leadership and department chair in the Woodbury School of Business (UVU), Academic Director of the UVU Center for Social Impact and the UVU SIMLab, and Faculty Fellow for Ethics in Public Life (previously the Associate Director) in the Center for the Study of Ethics. He also is an experienced OD/HR/Leadership consultant (Human Capital Innovations, LLC), with experience transforming organizations across the globe. Dr. Westover has been published widely in academic journals, books, magazines, and in popular and professional media locally, nationally, and abroad (such as Forbes, The Economist, U.S. News and World Report, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, and USA Today). He has also been extensively quoted and cited as a management expert in popular press nationally and abroad.
Teaching Quality of Life in Different Domains
Editors: Tonon, Graciela (Ed.)
Social Indicators Research Series 79- Springer © 2020
The aim of this book is to present proposals to teach quality of life in different field. It is organized in 15 chapters, each of them dedicated to different fields.
In Chapter 1 the editor presents the proposition of quality of life (theoretical/methodological) as a possibility to construct a new outlook on the social field studies and to propose a course that includes the vision of quality of life in a Master/PhD Program in Social Sciences. In Chapter 2, Dan Weijers discusses the methods, topics, and perspectives that characterize a philosophical approach to teaching well-being or quality of life and concludes with some suggestions on how to harness the subject matter in a way that creates an engaging undergraduate-level course on well-being and quality of life.Tobia Fattore in Chapter 3 examines different ways in which well-being and quality of life can be used as pedagogical concepts for teaching Sociology. The chapter begins with a first overview of key philosophical traditions in quality-of-life research for introducing some foundational sociological theories and ways of undertaking social research. In Chapter 4, Daniel T. L. Shek, Xiaoqin Zhu, Diya Dou, Moon Y.M. Law, Lu Yu, Cecilia M.S. Ma, and Li Lin present two programs in response to the results of the research studies that showed worsening mental health conditions such as rising depression and suicidal rates, the increase of adolescent egocentrism, and the declined of empathy and sense of social responsibility among university students. To promote holistic development and quality of life in undergraduate students, two credit-bearing leadership subjects were presented. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the teaching of quality of life in relation with the capability approach. Paul Anand offers new insights into how the capability approach can now make a systematic and transformative contribution to higher education teaching focused on quality of life. In Chapter 6, written by Takashi Inoguchi, the author describes how political science courses on quality of life may be organized with a syllabus that consists of the following six sections: people’s satisfaction with daily life, people’s approval of government conducts especially economic policy, parents’ propensity to nurture their children norms and values, QOL and confidence in institutions, QOL-based societal profiling or typology of Asian societies, and Applying QOL studies in Sustainable Development Goals. Don R. Rahtz, M. Joseph Sirgy, Stephan Grzeskowiak, and Dong-Jin Lee examine in Chapter 7 different ways in which quality-of-life concepts can be integrated into existing marketing coursework. The ultimate goal is to increase the likelihood that students would embrace a QOL orientation in the practice of marketing. The final section ends with a set of suggestions for moving the acceptance of the broader use of QOL-related concepts in marketing departments, the business academy. Chapter 8 was written by Filomena Maggino who presents the case of a post-master program dedicated to the training of statisticians in the field of quality of life. In Chapter 9, Jon Hall comments how statisticians, economists, and policy makers around the world are working to design and use alternative measures of human progress. This chapter discusses some of the ways in which education and training can foster and support this work. In Chapter 10, Jorge Guardiola proposes Nonviolent Economics as a path for achieving quality of life, presenting an experience of addressing quality of life in an Economic Policy course. Matías Popovsky in Chapter 11 presents the importance of teaching quality of life using online education, which means conducting a course partially or entirely through the Internet and presents a model for online courses and degree programs. Javier Martinez in Chapter 12 presents an approach for teaching and learning quality of life in urban studies. It is contextualized within two higher education courses in an MSc specialization on Urban Planning and Management with a group of international students in the last 10 years. Chapter 13 is dedicated on the teaching of quality of life and well-being in Public Health. Chelsea Wesner, Diana Feldhacker, and Whitney Lucas Molitor propose the social ecological model of health as an organizing framework, considering that it is an innovative and integrated approach to teaching that aims to create quality learning experiences. Chapter 14 by Diane E. Mack, Philip M. Wilson, Caitlin Kelley, and Jennifer Mooradian presents how to teach well-being within the context of sports through four evidence-based modules. At the end the chater focuses on distinct groups of athletes including sport participants living with physical and intellectual disabilities, athletes undergoing injury rehabilitation, and current/former athletes transitioning beyond sport. Finally in Chapter 15, Sabirah Adams, Shazly Savahl, Maria Florence, Kyle Jackson, Donnay Manuel, Mulalo Mpilo, and Deborah Isobell aim to briefly sketch the extent of quality-of-life research relating to children in South Africa and to propose a syllabus for training emerging researchers in conducting QoL research.
A grant study (Carroll et al., 2020) with a control group was just published under the Journal of Behavioral Medicine . Quality-of-Life-Therapy was used to improve positive emotions among patients with cardio-implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). This is the 3rd grant-supported study with a control group (Rodrigue, Baz et al. 2005, Rodrigue, Mandel, et al. 2005). Quality-of-Life-Therapy meets the clinical psychology criteria summarized by Kazdin for an evidence-based intervention (Frisch, 2016), and Seligman agrees: it has “good empirical validation” (Seligman, 2011; Rashid and Seligman, 2014). The three grant studies provide data in support of the sensitivity to treatment-related changes on the part of the Quality-of-Life-Inventory.
J Behav Med.pdf
Abedi, M.R. and Vostanis, P. (2010). Evaluation of Quality of Life Therapy for parents of children with obsessive-compulsive disorders in Iran. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
Carroll, A.J., Christon, L.M., Rodrigue, J.R., Fava, J.L., Frisch, M.B, & Serber, E.R. (2020). Implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of Quality-of-Life-Therapy to improve positive emotions among patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Journal of Behavior Medicine, in press and online 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-020-00153-2 .
Clark, D.A. (2006). Foreword. In M.B. Frisch, Quality-of-Life-Therapy (pp. xi-x). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Frisch, M. B. (2006). Quality-of-Life-Therapy. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Frisch, M.B. (2009). Quality-of-Life-Inventory Handbook: A Guide for Laypersons, Clients, and Coaches. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson and Pearson Assessments.
Frisch, M.B. (2016), Quality-of-Life-Therapy, In A.M. Wood and J. Johnson (Eds.), The Wiley Handbook of Positive Clinical Psychology, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Frisch, M. B., Clark, M. P., Rouse, S. V., Rudd, M. D., Paweleck, J., & Greenstone, A. (2005). Predictive and treatment validity of life satisfaction and the Quality-of-Life-Inventory. Assessment, 12, 66–78.
Kazdin, A. E. (2006). Arbitrary metrics: Implications for identifying evidence-based treatments. American Psychologist, 61(1), 42-49.
Land, K. C. (2006). Quality of Life Therapy for All!: A review of Frisch’s approach to positive psychology, Quality of Life Therapy. SINET (Social Indicators Network News), 85, 1-4.
Rashid, T. and Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Positive psychotherapy. In D. Wedding and R. Corsini (Eds.). Current Psychotherapies (10th Ed.)..
Rodrigue, J.R. Mandelbrot, D.A., and Pavlakis, M. (2011). A psychological intervention to improve quality of life and reduce psychological distress in adults awaiting kidney transplantation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 26(2): 709-715.
Rodrigue, J.R., Widows, M.R., & Baz, M.A. (2006). Caregivers of patients awaiting lung transplantation: Do they benefit when the patient is receiving psychological services, Progress in Transplantation, 16, 336-342.
Rodrigue, J. R., Baz, M.A., Widows, M.R. , & Ehlers, S.L. (2005). “A Randomized Evaluation of Quality of Life Therapy with Patients Awaiting Lung Transplantation”. American Journal of Transplantation, 5, 2425-2432.
Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Flourish. New York: Free Press.
Retired Professor of Psychology
As most of you might already know from the newsletters and e-mails via IUSSP, EAPS and others, the Call for Papers for the Vienna Yearbook of Population Research (VYPR) 2021 Special Issue on “Demographic Aspects of Human Wellbeing” is open now.
We want to draw the attention of all oral and poster presenters as well as of all submitters of papers for the WIC 2019 Conference to this call and kindly invite you to submit your papers until 31 March 2020.
The VYPR is an open-access journal that has been published annually by the Vienna Institute of Demography (VID) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences since 2003. It is addressing population trends as well as a broad range of theoretical and methodological issues in population research. Examples of topics for the Special Issue include:
· Life expectancy based indicators of wellbeing
· (Economic) wellbeing over the life course and over time
· Demographic differentials/inequalities in wellbeing
· Wellbeing and intergenerational support
· Feedbacks from environmental change to human wellbeing
Further details concerning submissions can be found here: https://www.oeaw.ac.at/fileadmin/subsites/Institute/VID/PDF/Publications/VYPR/Guidelines_for_Authors.pdf
General information on the VYPR as well as on the current call: www.viennayearbook.org
We kindly ask you to share this Call for Papers with your network and encourage you to submit your own manuscript by 31 March 2020.
With kind regards
Raya Muttarak, DPhil
Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital (Univ. Vienna, IIASA, VID/ÖAW)
Deputy Program Director, World Population Program
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria
Phone : +43 2236 807 329
Fax: +43 2236 71 313
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Congratulations to Masood A. Badri on the completion of the ISQOLS Certification in Quality-of-Life Research: Related to Community Indicators Projects!
Learn more about the Certification program: Certification Program
What made you decide to pursue the Community Indicators Researcher Certificate course?
I think this course is the only one that I found that focuses on the process of planning, developing, and implementing community QOL indicators from start to finish. I could not believe it that I could get such a rich experience (online) and at my pace. Having an engineering background, but currently serving as Advisor to the Abu Dhabi Department of Community Development (DCD) Chairman, my role requires to be close to towns, cities, and regions with all their specific categories. Reading through the mission of the Community Indicators Researcher Certificate, I was certain, I found what I am looking for.
How would you describe the course experience?
Reading through the cases, was the richest experience. The cases were picked so intelligently. They covered the whole spectrum of QOL. I though after analyzing the first case, that the second one would be same and easier to analyze; but the second one was (another world) completely different. It required a completely different way of thinking. To be honest, I could not wait for the third case; I was write, it was a movie full of drama, mystery, and action. totally amazing. It enforces the notion that you cannot just copy what other countries or cities have done. It requires looking at unique settings to design QOL indicators.
How long did it take you to complete this certificate program? How many hours per week (on average) did you dedicate to the program? Were you able to balance your normal work/life activities alongside this certificate program?
I do not think it is a matter of how many hours per week it took me to complete the course. Reading the manual took me only few hours, and reading each case took me like 2 hours on the average. However, I was stopping even after each paragraph to see the insights presented. It becomes a matter of passion, and hence, you lose counting hours. For example, I was working on the second case, and suddenly my daughter told me, "you have been with this case the whole day". Honestly I lost the perception of time completely. I missed a very important meeting, but I am not to blame. Reading and analyzing each case required that I live the circumstances and the facts. Time had no significance in my case. I need to add too that reading each case gave more passion to dig deeper into the web searching for related sources. Time had no value, especially when land on a (specific site) related to the case but with more details and insights. Such experience lets a person forget about time completely.
How did this certificate program impact and/or increase your knowledge of your field of study?
I have attended many conferences, and workshops around the world on QOL. Usually, the sessions or presentations reflect a specific part of the project or outcome. But each of the cases presented in the certification program provided the whole picture from start until end. Each case posed questions of (why?), and (why not). Each case made me go deeper into the (circumstances) and the (realities). The cases presented (hard) realities that copying the best of what other countries or cites have done is not the way. The cases force the (dedicated) analyst to look deeper into the communities with its unique features and settings. I am in charge of the QOL survey in Abu Dhabi, this unique experience gave the in-depth understanding of the whole process. It gave me many ideas that I would implement to enrich my understanding of the whole process.
Would you recommend this certificate to others? If yes, why?
The ISQOLS Certification in Quality-of-Life Research program is designed to enrich researchers to better grasp the full understanding of their specializing in community indicators projects. I consider my experience in this program as additional rich training in all aspects of the matter. Now, and with complete pride, I say that I AM OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED IN QOL. I always wanted to say that. But I say it now with PRIDE.
Scope Book 2 (Springer/Palgrave Macmillan. Publication June 2020)
‘Humanitarian Work, Social Change and Human behavior’. Compassion for Change
This Book ‘Humanitarian Work, Social Change and Human behavior’ is based on the understanding that human existence is a composite of four layers: mind, heart, body and soul. These four elements are constantly interacting with each other. Each chapter component reflects one of these four layers of human existence, which underpin an innovative methodology that will be introduced in these pages. By combining theory and praxis the objective is to make the reader understand (thought), feel (emotion), experience (sensation) and share (aspiration) the content of ‘Humanitarian work, social change and human behaviour’ first-hand.
The book points out some of the reasons for the insufficient progress made by development and humanitarian aid. It offers arguments why non-profit institutions whose justification is to help, must begin by help their staff help themselves. Organizations with an inspiring social mission must practice internally what they preach internally. Whether these organizations life up to the inspirational potential that goes with their mandate, is conditioned by their ability to place the aspiration of their staff for meaning at the center of action, internally and externally. It is shown how the proposed paradigm shift can be started, expanded and maintained, from individuals to institutions and vice-versa. The outline of Compassion for Change (C4C), proposes a concrete way for using the paradigm-shift that this book is based up to transform the internal culture of humanitarian and development organizations; in order to reanimate and expand their external influence.
The first chapter illustrates the inside-out logic that this book is based upon, while also introducing the story of the author. This chapter will demonstrate the causes and consequences of a novel approach whose logic and added value is presented in the subsequent chapters. Chapter two introduces the theoretical underpinning of the approach, and its benefits. Chapter three focuses on the outside-in dynamic. This chapter offers links to the status quo of the humanitarian and development aid sector, with proposed elements for change. The fourth and final chapter summarizes the principle of the continuum between, and within, the four layers that the methodology is based upon; it facilitates the practical application through schematization and hereby rationalization. Each chapter includes exercises for the reader to apply the proposed theoretical insights in their own context, and to share what they have acquired with others.
Cornelia C. Walther, PhD
Tel + 1 347 845 37 90
Affiliations: Deakin University, UNICEF, POZE Network
Location: New York
Synopsis of upcoming books
Scope Book 1 (Springer/Palgrave Macmillan. Publication May 2020)
Development, Humanitarian Aid and Social Welfare. Social Change from the inside Out
This book seeks to examine the way in which human behavior is shaped by our emotions, thoughts and aspirations, and vice-versa, how the resulting experiences impact ourselves, others and the World.
Based on an analysis of these interactions, it seeks to offer practical solutions to systematically induce social change dynamics, which are sustainable overtime. With a case study from Port-au-Prince (Haiti) as illustration, this book also examines the interplay of the individual with the culture, socio-economical and political context of his/her environment, and the causes and consequences that these factors engender along the path of personal and collective evolution. Put another way, this book sheds light on individual aspirations as the core of personal empowerment, which in turn lies at the center of community, national and, by consequence global, prosperity.
The book explains how social change, in addition to economic and political transformation at the macro-level, begins with a mind-shift at the micro-level. National resilience is anchored in individual resilience; which is rooted in the individual’s personal aspiration to meaning. Connecting to this aspiration unlocks the person’s ability to overcome political and economic challenges, violence and poverty, and to thrive despite them, by proactively taking charge. The book establishes the missing link between investments in personal empowerment and collective welfare. One nurtures the other once they are pursued in a holistic understanding of shared value, and shared responsibility. Thus, individuals who consciously seek the best interest of others end up benefiting from better quality of life, physically, mentally and emotionally.
The theoretical foundation of this book is the concept of a ‘body-mind-heart-soul connection’, collected from various conceptual frameworks and traditions, which is used to examine the multi-faceted dimensions of stress, subjective wellbeing and collective progress. Through an innovative multidisciplinary approach, this book aims to counter the noticeable shortcomings in the discursive representations of development and non-profit communication, and to contribute a more balanced examination of the narratives about and the impact of meaning and critical mindsets in people’s lives and experiences.
This book looks at the micro-, meso, macro and meta-levels of social change: It theorizes and challenges the ‘figure’ of individuals as passive onlookers of their situation, in particular in fragile states that are traditionally portrayed as basket-cases of charity, and offers ways towards a shift in mindsets, from victimization to personal power. Seeing the significant potential of non-profit organizations (non-governmental organizations, United Nations, Foundations, bi and multilateral funds) dedicated to social causes, to drive social change, this book looks then at the factors that hinder organizations from living up to the inspiring mission that is often enshrined in their mandate, and tools to shape the prevailing institutional culture. Finally, it looks at facts that influence public opinions, as building blocks of social norms that condone a globalized bystander syndrome in the face of inequality; and proposes practices to shape decision-making architectures that are conducive to inclusive decision-making.
Situated within the study of resilience, the nexus of development and humanitarian aid, education and societal adaptation within contemporary global and local contexts, this book makes the case for an alternative path to sustainable change and hereby an inclusive society. Based on the premise that an equitable society is to the benefit of everyone, in the book it is argued that efforts made in the interest of others have benefits at three levels – for the individual who acts, the one who has been acted for, and wider society.
The value of immunotherapy for survivors of stage IV non-small cell lung cancer: patient perspectives on quality of life
Rebekah Park& James W. Shaw & Alix Korn & Jacob McAuliffe
The aim of this study was to examine what personally mattered to 24 patients who received immuno-oncology (IO) therapy for stage IV non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC),as well as their families and friends,to understand how they evaluated their cancer treatments and the determinants of the quality of life (QoL) of long-term survivors. Methods Ethnographic research was conducted with 24 patients who had responded to IO (pembrolizumab, nivolumab, atezolizumab, or durvalumab) for stage IV NSCLC, and their families and friends, evenly split among field sites in Denmark, the USA, and the UK. Data were collected using in-depth qualitative interviews, written exercises, and participant observation. Data analysis methods included interpretative phenomenological analysis, coding, and the development of grounded theory. Researchers spent 2 days with participants in their homes and accompanied them on health-related outings. Results Our findings reveal that long-term survivors on IO experienced their journey in two phases: one in which their cancer had taken over their lives mentally, physically, and spiritually, and another in which their cancer consumed only a part of their everyday lives. Patients who survived longer than their initial prognosis existed in a limbo state in which they were able to achieve some semblance of normalcy in spite of being identified as having a terminal condition. This limbo state impacted their life priorities, decision-making, experience of patient support, and health information-seeking behaviors, all of which shaped their definitions and experience of QoL. Conclusions The results of this study,which identify the specific challenges of living in limbo,where patients are able to reclaim a portion of their pre-cancer lives while continuing to wrestle with a terminal prognosis, may inform how cancer research can more effectively define and measure the QoL impacts of IO treatments. Also, they may identify approaches that the cancer community can use to support the needs of patients living in a limbo state.These experiences may not be adequately understood by the cancer community or captured by existing QoL measures, which were designed prior to the emergence ofI O and without sufficient incorporation of contextual, patient-driven experience. Implications for Cancer Survivors Increased awareness of the specific experiences that come with long-term survival on IO may directhowresourcesshouldbespentforcancersupportforpatientsandtheirfamilies.ExpandinghowQoLisevaluatedbasedon patients’ lived experiences of IO can reflect a more accurate depiction of the treatment’s benefits and harms.
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